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D. 0. TEBEEST
United States. This fungal pathogen infects several species within the genus
Aeschynomene. However, it also infects species within eight other genera, including Cicer, Indigofera, Lathyrus, Lens, Lotus, Lupinus, Vicia, and Pisum. It
is important to note, however, that the fungus is highly virulent only to A .
virginica and Lathyrus arboreus L., although certain cultivars of Pisurn sativurn
L. were also severely infected (TeBeest, 1988; Weidemann et a l . , 1988).
Similarly, the host range of P . palmivora, the fungus formulated as DeVine,
includes species other than M. odoruta, the intended target (Ridings et a l . ,
1976). The host range of P . palmivora includes onions, cantaloupe, watermelon,
okra, tomato, endive, cucumber, english pea, and carrot, and even certain citrus
root stocks based on greenhouse tests of preemergence, postemergence, and
On the other hand, the host specificity of C. gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae
appears to be more limited than either of the other two commerically available
bioherbicides. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae appears to be specific to plants within a single family, the Malvaceae, except for two species,
safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and white mustard (Brassica hirta) (Mortenson,
1988). However, infections of either of these two species did not affect the
plants. The fungus infected weedy and ornamental species within the Malvaceae
with disease being most severe on certain Malva species and Abutilon theophrasti Medic, which is also a weed.
These three examples are sufficient to illustrate two obvious facts. First, weed
pathogens can and do infect nontarget cultivated and noncultivated species.
Second, infections of nontarget species are occasionally severe. Host range
testing protocols, however, have been gradually developed and adopted to identify potential nontarget cultivated and noncultivated host species. Similarly, nearly
all host-range tests have been conducted in greenhouses or growth chambers
under carefully controlled conditions. It is not certain if host ranges tests conducted and determined in this manner have any direct relationship to similar tests
conducted in the field.
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene has been used in a variety
of test systems to evaluate the infectivity of microbial pest control agents on
nontarget species (Fournie et a l . , 1988; Genthner and Foss, 1991, 1994). Fournie
et al. (1988) showed that this plant parasitic fungal species did not cause adverse
effects to a series of test species including fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), a crustacean (Paleomonetes pugio), or a bivalve mollusc (Crassostrea virginica). The
test system employed in this work could be used effectively to evaluate other
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS
microbial agents of different classes and families. For example, Genthner and
Foss (1994) showed that Colletotrichum did not cause any adverse effects to
Paleomonetes embryos exposed to viable conidiospores. However, Metarhizium
anisopliae recently registered by the EPA for control of nuisance flies and cockroaches adversely affected Puleomonetes in comparative tests. Metarhiziurn adversely affected grass shrimp embryos, in some tests killing 67% of the embryos;
in some tests, delayed hatch and larval death were also observed. In additional
testing, Genthner and Middaugh (1994) noted that toxicity of Metarhizium embryos of inland silverside fish, Menidia beryllina, was probably not due to an
artifact of the test protocol but to the organism, since Colletotrichum caused no
reaction in parallel studies.
A strain of Pseuclomonasfiuorescens also had no effect on nontarget species in
these tests (Genthner et u l . , 1991) while potential adverse effects were noted for
the insect pathogens Metarrhizium anisopliae, Bacillus sphaericus, and Beauvaria bassiuna (Genthner and Foss, 1991, 1994).
Biological control of weeds with plant pathogens has been an area of study for
approximately 100 years. The earliest reports generally illustrated unusual occurrences of disease of weedy species or attempts to control weeds by augmenting
populations of pathogens in localized infestations of weeds, often without repeatable success.
The more recent and much more successful importations of several pathogens
into several countries have served to increase interest in the classical approach to
biological control of weeds to such a point that several countries are now actively
pursuing this approach.
In addition, there is a renewed interest in biological pesticides, and Rodgers
(1993) has estimated that biological pesticide sales are increasing by 10-25% per
year while agrochemical markets are either static or shrinking. The development
of biological herbicides for weeds in the early 1980s has showed that plant
pathogens can also be effectively used as biological pesticides. This approach has
been developed along with newly implemented guidelines and regulations for
their use. Most importantly, they have been effectively and reliably used on a
The work on biological control of weeds with plant pathogens has led to a
clearer understanding of diseases on noncultivated plant species and on how
these pathogens interact with populations of these plant species. Continued investigation of these diseases also may serve to help us better understand diseases
of cultivated crops.
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It is nearly certain that additional pathogens will be found, but it is much less
certain that they will of economic benefit to users or manufacturers. The economic and ecological benefit of each new potential biological control agent is subject
to the complexity of cost/benefit analysis and must consider an enormous number of economic and biological variables (Tisdell, 1987). The enormity and cost
of this task will require very careful evaluation by research and industry of
potential target weeds and prospective pathogens that can even be considered for
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F. Iyamuremye and R. P. Dick
Department of Crop and Soil Science,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, Oregon 9733 1
A. Phosphorus Cycle in Soils
B. Early History
11. Aerobic Soils: Organic Acids and Phosphorus Sorption
A. Organic Acids in Soils
B. Complexation Reactions with Metals
C. Competition for Sorption Sites
D. Dissolution of Precipitated Phosphate and Formation of Solid
E. F,ffects on Surface Charge
F. Phytoavailability of Phosphate
111. Aerobic Soils: Plant Residues and h m a l Manures
A. Soil pH
B. Exchangeable Aluminum and Iron
C. Phosphorus Content o f Organic Residues and Phosphorus Sorption
D. Biological Transformations of Phosphorus and Fate of Phosphorus
from Organic Amendments
E. Phosphorus Sorption
F. Organic .Amendments Enriched with Inorganic Phosphorus and
Phytoavailability of Phosphorus
rV. Waterlogged Soils
A. Organic Amendments and Eh
B. Organic Amendments and pH
C. Flooded Soils and Phosphorus Solubility
D. Effects of Organic Amendments on Phosphorus Sorption
V. Research Needs
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development. It is
a deficient nutrient in most soils, particularly in soils with andic properties and
F. IYAMUREMYE AND R. P. DICK
highly weathered soils such as Ultisols and Oxisols. Generally, P is available to
plants in very small amounts in acid soils, due to adsorption by Fe or Al oxides or
by its precipitation with soluble A1 and Fe in acid soils, whereas in alkaline soils
phosphate readily reacts with Ca to form insoluble precipitates.
Liming soils is the traditional method used to reduce P sorption to increase its
plant availability in acid soils. However, liming is an expensive input and is less
effective on high P-fixing soils (Haynes, 1982). With the current interest in
reduced use of purchased inputs and efficient use of organic residues in
agroecosystems, there has been renewed interest in the past 10 years on use of
organic amendments to increase P efficiency and availability to plants. This idea
has a long history, but recent developments in research and analytical methods
have provided significant advances in our understanding of the role of organic
amendments in affecting P sorption in soils. Besides addressing organic amendments, the scope of this chapter includes specific components (e.g., organic
acids, transformation of organic P in soils) that are important in the relationship
between organic amendments and P sorption. Because of divergent chemical and
biological processes that occur between aerobic and waterlogged soils, this review is subdivided to separately address these two types of soil environments.
More attention is devoted to aerobic soils because considerably more research
has been done on the effect of organic residues on P sorption in aerobic than
Phosphorus reactions in the soil environment have been extensively reviewed
elsewhere (Wild, 1949; Larsen, 1967; Haynes, 1982; Berkheiser ef al., 1980;
Sanchez and Uehara, 1980; Sanyal and De Datta, 1991). Therefore, we will
provide a brief overview of P pools and transformations as a framework for
understanding the P dynamics when organic residues are added to soils.
The P cycle can be characterized as the flow of P between plants, animals,
microorganisms, and solid phases of the soil. Major P processes for soils shown
in Fig. 1 include P uptake by plants; biological mediated turnover of P through
mineralization/immobilizationreactions; and chemical fixation/dissolution reactions between liquid and solid phases.
When plant productivity is emphasized, P often has been partitioned into pools
based on their potential to provide inorganic orthophosphate for plant uptake.
These P pools are broadly envisioned as soil solution P, labile P, and nonlabile P.
The labile P is defined as a P reserve that can replenish soil solution orthophosphate in response to P uptake by plant roots. Conversely, nonlabile P has minimal
or nonexistent effects on soil solution orthophosphate on an annual basis. Both
labile and nonlabile P pools may contain inorganic and organic constituents.