1. Trang chủ >
  2. Khoa Học Tự Nhiên >
  3. Hóa học - Dầu khí >

VI. The Environmental Impact of Microbial Herbicides

Bạn đang xem bản rút gọn của tài liệu. Xem và tải ngay bản đầy đủ của tài liệu tại đây (15.52 MB, 301 trang )



United States. This fungal pathogen infects several species within the genus

Aeschynomene. However, it also infects species within eight other genera, including Cicer, Indigofera, Lathyrus, Lens, Lotus, Lupinus, Vicia, and Pisum. It

is important to note, however, that the fungus is highly virulent only to A .

virginica and Lathyrus arboreus L., although certain cultivars of Pisurn sativurn

L. were also severely infected (TeBeest, 1988; Weidemann et a l . , 1988).

Similarly, the host range of P . palmivora, the fungus formulated as DeVine,

includes species other than M. odoruta, the intended target (Ridings et a l . ,

1976). The host range of P . palmivora includes onions, cantaloupe, watermelon,

okra, tomato, endive, cucumber, english pea, and carrot, and even certain citrus

root stocks based on greenhouse tests of preemergence, postemergence, and

foliage inoculations.

On the other hand, the host specificity of C. gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae

appears to be more limited than either of the other two commerically available

bioherbicides. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae appears to be specific to plants within a single family, the Malvaceae, except for two species,

safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and white mustard (Brassica hirta) (Mortenson,

1988). However, infections of either of these two species did not affect the

plants. The fungus infected weedy and ornamental species within the Malvaceae

with disease being most severe on certain Malva species and Abutilon theophrasti Medic, which is also a weed.

These three examples are sufficient to illustrate two obvious facts. First, weed

pathogens can and do infect nontarget cultivated and noncultivated species.

Second, infections of nontarget species are occasionally severe. Host range

testing protocols, however, have been gradually developed and adopted to identify potential nontarget cultivated and noncultivated host species. Similarly, nearly

all host-range tests have been conducted in greenhouses or growth chambers

under carefully controlled conditions. It is not certain if host ranges tests conducted and determined in this manner have any direct relationship to similar tests

conducted in the field.






Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene has been used in a variety

of test systems to evaluate the infectivity of microbial pest control agents on

nontarget species (Fournie et a l . , 1988; Genthner and Foss, 1991, 1994). Fournie

et al. (1988) showed that this plant parasitic fungal species did not cause adverse

effects to a series of test species including fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), a crustacean (Paleomonetes pugio), or a bivalve mollusc (Crassostrea virginica). The

test system employed in this work could be used effectively to evaluate other



microbial agents of different classes and families. For example, Genthner and

Foss (1994) showed that Colletotrichum did not cause any adverse effects to

Paleomonetes embryos exposed to viable conidiospores. However, Metarhizium

anisopliae recently registered by the EPA for control of nuisance flies and cockroaches adversely affected Puleomonetes in comparative tests. Metarhiziurn adversely affected grass shrimp embryos, in some tests killing 67% of the embryos;

in some tests, delayed hatch and larval death were also observed. In additional

testing, Genthner and Middaugh (1994) noted that toxicity of Metarhizium embryos of inland silverside fish, Menidia beryllina, was probably not due to an

artifact of the test protocol but to the organism, since Colletotrichum caused no

reaction in parallel studies.

A strain of Pseuclomonasfiuorescens also had no effect on nontarget species in

these tests (Genthner et u l . , 1991) while potential adverse effects were noted for

the insect pathogens Metarrhizium anisopliae, Bacillus sphaericus, and Beauvaria bassiuna (Genthner and Foss, 1991, 1994).


Biological control of weeds with plant pathogens has been an area of study for

approximately 100 years. The earliest reports generally illustrated unusual occurrences of disease of weedy species or attempts to control weeds by augmenting

populations of pathogens in localized infestations of weeds, often without repeatable success.

The more recent and much more successful importations of several pathogens

into several countries have served to increase interest in the classical approach to

biological control of weeds to such a point that several countries are now actively

pursuing this approach.

In addition, there is a renewed interest in biological pesticides, and Rodgers

(1993) has estimated that biological pesticide sales are increasing by 10-25% per

year while agrochemical markets are either static or shrinking. The development

of biological herbicides for weeds in the early 1980s has showed that plant

pathogens can also be effectively used as biological pesticides. This approach has

been developed along with newly implemented guidelines and regulations for

their use. Most importantly, they have been effectively and reliably used on a

commercial scale.

The work on biological control of weeds with plant pathogens has led to a

clearer understanding of diseases on noncultivated plant species and on how

these pathogens interact with populations of these plant species. Continued investigation of these diseases also may serve to help us better understand diseases

of cultivated crops.



It is nearly certain that additional pathogens will be found, but it is much less

certain that they will of economic benefit to users or manufacturers. The economic and ecological benefit of each new potential biological control agent is subject

to the complexity of cost/benefit analysis and must consider an enormous number of economic and biological variables (Tisdell, 1987). The enormity and cost

of this task will require very careful evaluation by research and industry of

potential target weeds and prospective pathogens that can even be considered for

introduction or as potential bioherbicides.


Adams, E. B., and Line, R . F. (1984). Biology of Pucciniu chondrillinu in Washington. PhyroparholORV 14, 742-745.

Amsellem, Z., Sharon. A,. and Cressel, J. (1991). Abolition of selectivity of two mycoherbicidal

organisms and enhanced virulence of avirulent fungi by an invert emulsion. Phytoparho/og,v 81.


Amsellem, 2.. Sharon, A., Cressel. J . , and Quimby, P. C. (1990). Complete abolition of high

inoculum threshold of two mycoherbicides (A/rerituria casriue and A . crassa) when applied in

invert emulsion. Phyropurhology 80, 925-929.

Anderson, R. N., and Walker, H. L. (1985). Collerorrichurn coc.codes: A pathogen of eastern black

nightshade (Solurium ptycmrhum). Weed Sci. 33, 902-905.

Auld. B . A , , Say, M. M., Ridings, H. I., and Andrews, I. (1990). Field applications of Collerorrichrtm orbicrtlurr t o control Xunrhium spinosum. Agric. Ecosystems Envimn. 32, 3 15323.

Auld. B. A., and Tisdell, C. A. (198.5).Biological weed control-Equilibria model. Agrir. Ecosy~.

rems Environ. 13. 1-8.

Barreto, R . W., and Evans, H. C. (1988). Taxonomy of a fungus introduced into Hawaii for

biological control of Agerrina riparia (Eupatorieae; Conipositae), with observations on related

weed pathogens. Truns. Brir. Mycol. Soc. 91, 81-97.

Baudoin. A. B. A. M.,Abad. R. G.. Kok, L. T., and Bruckart, W. L. (1993). Field evaluation of

Puccirlia curdrtorfrm for biological control of musk thistle. Biol. Corrrml 3. 53-60.

Begonia. M.F. T., Kremer, R . J.. Stanley. L., and Jamshedi, A. (1990). Association of bacteria with

velvetleaf roots. Trans. Missouri Amd. Sci. 24, 17-26.

Bowers, R. C. ( 1986). Commercialization of collego-An industrialist's view. Werd Sci. 34(Suppl.

I). 24-25,

Boyette, C. D.. Quimby. P. C.. Jr., Bryson, C. T., Egley, G . H., and Fulghani. F. E. (1993).

Biological control of hemp sesbania (Seshaniu exulruru) under field conditions with Collerorrichum fruncurum formulated in an invert emulsion. Weed Sci. 41, 497-500.

Boyette, C. D., Templeton, G . E.. and Oliver, L. R. (1984). Texas gourd (Cucurhiru rexuna) control

with Fusariitm soloni f.sp. cucurbirae. Weed Sci. 32, 649-655.

Brosten, B. S., and Sands. D. C. ( 1986). Field trials of Sclerorinia scleroriorurn to control Canada

thistle (Cirsium urwnse). Weed Sci. 34, 377-380.

Bruckart, w. L., and Dowler. W.(1986). Evaluation of exotic rust fungi in the United States for

classical biological control of weeds. Weed Sci. 34(Suppl. I), 11-14,

Bruckart, W. L., and Hasan, S. (19911. Options with plant pathogens intended for classical control of

range and pasture weeds. 111 "Microbial Control of Weeds" (D. 0. TeBeest, Ed.), pp. 69-79.

Chapman and Hall. New York.



Burnett, H. C., Tucker, D. P. H . , and Patterson. M . E. (1973). Biological control of milkweed vine

with a race of Phytophthoru citrophthorci. Proc. Florida Hortic~ultrtralSoc. 86. 1 I I - 115.

Burnett. H. C., Tucker, D. P. H.. and Ridings, W. H. (1974). Phyrophthoru root and stem rot of

milkweed vine. Plant Dis. Reptr. 58, 355-357.

Butler, F. C. ( I 95 I ). Anthracnose and seedling blight of bathurst burr caused by Ca//etorrichum

xunthii Halst. Ausr. J. Agric. Reg. 2, 401-410.

Caesar. A. J. (1994). Pathogenicity of Agrobacrerium species from the noxious rangelands weeds

Euphorbiu esulu and Centaurea repens. Plunr Dis. 78, 796-800.

Callaway. M. B., Phatak. S. C.. and Wells, H. D. (1985). Studies on alternate hosts of the rust

Purriniu ranuliculuru, a potential biological control agent for nutsedges. Planr Dis. 69, 924926.

pavers, P. B.. and Benoit. D. L. (1989). Seed banks in arable land. I n “Ecology of Soil Seed Banks”

(M. A. Leck, V. T. Parker, and R. L. Simpson, Eds.), pp. 309-328. Academic Press, San

Diego. CA.

Charudattan. R . (1984). Microbial control of plant pathogens and weeds. J. Georgia Entorno/. Soc.


Charudattan, R. (1986). Integrated control of waterhyacinth (Eichornia crussipes) with a pathogen.

insects. and herbicides. Weed Sci. 34(Suppl. I ) , 26-30.

Charudattan, R . (1993). The role of pesticides in altering biocontrol efficacy. In “Pesticides Interactions in Crop Production ( J . Altnian, Ed.), pp. 421-432. CRC Press, Ann Arbor. MI.

Charudattan, R . , Perkins, B. D., and Littell, R. C. (1978). Effects of fungi and bacteria on the

decline of arthropod-damaged waterhyacinth (Eichorniu cwssiprs) in Florida. Weed Sci. 26,


Charudattan, R . . Linda, S . B., Kluepfel, M . . and Osnian, Y. A . (1985). Biocontrol efficacy of

Cercosporu rodmunii on waterhyacinth. ~ h v t ~ p U t h ~75,

/ ~ J1263g ~ 1269.

Cockayne. A. H. (1910). Fungi as weed controllers. Nen, Zeulond J . Agric. 1. 214-215.

Conway, K . E. (l976a). Cercospora rotimunii, a new pathogen of waterhyacinth with biological

control potential. Cun. J . Bat. 54. 1079-1083.

Conway, K . E. (1976b). Evaluation of Cercusporu rodmunii as a biological control of waterhyacinths. Phvtopurhology 66, 914-9 17.

Crawley, D. K.,Walker. H. L., and Riley. J. A. (1995). Interaction of Alternuria rnurrospora and

Fusariurn lateririum on spurred anoda. Plant Dis. 69. 977-979.

Cullen, J. M., Kable, P. F., and Catt. M.(1972). Epidemic spread of a rust imported for biological

control. Nature 244, 462-464.

Cunningham, G. H. (1927). “Natural control” of weeds and insects by fungi. New ZealandJ. Agrir.

34, 244-254.

Daniel. J. T.. Templeton, G . E., Smith, R. J . . Jr., and Fox, W. T. (1973). Biological control of

northern jointvetch in rice with an endemic fungal disease. Weed Sci. 21, 303-307.

Dimock, A . W., and Baker, K. F. (1951). Effect of climate on disease development, injuriousness,

and fungicidal control, as exemplified by snapdragon rust. Phytaputhology 41, 536-552.

Dodd, A. P. (1961). The biological control of Eupurorirtm udenophorum in Queensland. Aitstralian

J . Sci. 23. 356-365.

Eberlein. C. V., Barkdoll, A. W., and Davis, J. R. (1991). Pathogenicity of Collerntrichum cweudes

isolates to potato (Solanurn tuherosum) and two nightshade (Solanurn spp.) species. Weed

Techno/. 5 . 570-574.

Egley. G . H . , Hanks. I. E.. and Boyette, C. D. (1993).Invert emulsion droplet size and mycoherbicidal activity of Colletotrichum truricutitm. Weed T e c h J l . 7 , 417-424.

Emge, R . G . . Melching, J . S . . and Kingsolver. C. H. (1981). Epidemiology of Puccinia

chotidrillina, a rust pathogen for the biological control of rush skeleton wecd in the United

States. Phyropathology 71, 839-843.



Feichtenberger, E., Zentmeyer, G. A., and Menge, J. A. (1984). Identity of Phyrophthora isolated

from milkweed vine. Phytoparhology 74, 50-55.

Fournie, 1. W.,Foss, S. S., and Couch, 1. A . (1988). A multispecies system for evaluation of

infectivity and pathogenicity of microbial pest control agents in nontarget aquatic species. Dis.

Aquatic Organisms 5, 63-70.

Genthner, F. J., Cripe, G. M., and Middaugh, D. P. (1991). Development of test methods to assess

fate of microbial pest control agents and their effects on nontarget aquatic organisms. Proc.

Eiotechnol. Risk Assessment Conj., U.S. EPA, Environmental Research Lab. Gulf Breeze, FL.

Genthner, F. J., and Foss, S. S. (1991). Development of test methods to assess fate of microbial pest

control agents and their effects on nontarget aquatic invertebrates. Proc. SOC. Invertebrate

Purhol., Aug. 4-9. Northern Ariz. University, Flagstaff, AZ.

Genthner, F. J., and Foss, S. S. (1994). Effects of the insect control fungus Metarrhizium anisopliae

on developing grass shrimp embryos. Proc. Fallen Leaf Lake Conf. Microbial Ecol. Eiol.

Control, Sept. 15-18. Fallen Leaf Lake, CA.

Genthner, F. J., and Middaugh, D. (1994). Effects of Merarrhizium anisopliae on developing embryos of the inland silverside fish, Menida berillina. Proc. Eiotechnol. Risk Assessmenr Conf.,

June 22-25. College Park, MD.

Gohbara, M., and Yamaguchi, K . (1993). Biological agents for the control of paddy weeds in Japan.

Extension Bulletin No. 369. Food & Fertilizer Technology Center, Taipai City, Republic of

China on Taiwan.

Grant, N. T.,Prusinkiewicz, E., Makowski, R. M. D., Holmstrom-Ruddick, B., Mortenson, K., et

al. ( 1990). Effect of selected pesticides on survival of Collerorrichurn gloeosporioides f.sp.

malvae. a bioherbicide for round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla). Weed Technol. 4, 701-7 15.

Grant, N. T.. Prusinkiewicz, E., Mortenson, K., and Makowski, R. M. D. (1988). Herbicide

interactions with Collerotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. rnalvae a bioherbicide for round-leaved

mallow (Malva pusillu) control. Weed Technol. 4, 716-723.

Hallett, S. G., Hutchinson, P., Paul, N. D., and Ayres, P. G. (1990a). Conidial germination of

Eotryris cinerea in relation to aeciospores and aecia of groundsel rust (Puccinia lagenophorae).

Mvcol. Res. 94, 603-606.

Hallett, S. G., Paul, N. D., and Ayres, P. G. (1990b). Eotrytis cinerea kills groundsel (Senecio

vulgaris) infected by rust (Puccinia lagenophorae). N . fhyrol. 114, 105- 109.

Halsted, B. D. (1893). Weeds and their most common fungi. New Jersey Expt. Sta. Rept. pp. 379381.

Hasan, S. (1972). Specificity and host specialization of Puccinia chondrillina. Ann. Appl. Eiol. 72,


Hasan, S . , and Jenkins, J. T.(1972). The effect of some climatic factors on infectivity of the skeleton

weed rust, Puccinia chondrillina. Plant Dis. Reprr. 56, 858-860.

Hasan, S . , and Wapshere, A. J. (1973). The biology of Puccinia chondrillinu a potential biological

control agent of skeleton weed. Ann. Appl. Eiol 74, 325-332.

Hildebrand, P. D., and Jensen, K. I. N. (1991). Potential for the biological control of St. John’s-wort

(Hypericum perforarum) with an endemic strain of Colletorrichum gloeosporioides. Can. J .

Plant Puthol. 13, 66-70.

Hodgson, R. H., Wymore, L. A., Watson, A. K., Snyder, R. H., and Collette, A. (1988). Efficacy of

Colletotrichum coccodes and thidiazuron for velvetleaf (Abutilon fheophrasti) control in soybean (Glvcine m u ) . Weed Technol. 2,473-480.

Johnson, B. J. (1994). Biological control of annual bluegrass with Xanrhomonas campesrris pv.

poannua in bermudagrass. Hortscience 29, 659-662.

Joye, G. F. (1990). Biological control of aquatic weeds with plant pathogens. In “Microbes and

Microbial Products as Herbicides” (R. E. Hoagland, Ed.), pp. 155- 175. American Chemical

Society, Washington, DC.



Kennedy, A. C.. Elliott, L. F., Young. F. L.. and Douglas, C. L. (1991). Rhizobacteria suppressive

to weed downy brome. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J . 55, 722-727.

Kenney, D. S. (1986). DeVine-The way it was developed-An industrialist’s view. Weed Sci.

34(S~ppl.I ) , 15-16.

Klerk, R. A , , Smith, R. J., Jr., and TeBeest, D. 0. (1985). Integration of a microbial herbicide into

weed and pest control programs in rice (Orvzu sutivu). Weed Sci. 33, 95-99.

Kremer, R. J. (1993). Management of weed seed banks with microorganisms. Ecol. Appl. 3,42-52.

Kremer. R. J.. Begonia, N. F. T.,Stanley, L . , and Lanham, E. T. (1990). Characterization of

rhizobacteria associated with weed seedlings. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 56, 1649- 1655.

Lee, G . A. (1986). Integrated control of rush skeletonweed (Chondnilla juncea) in the western U S .

Weed Sci. 34(Suppl. I ) , 2-6.

Linden. E. G . A . (1994). On interactions between a wild host plant, a fungal pathogcn and an insect

herbivore. PhD Dissertation. University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

McRae, C. F., and Stevens, C . R. (1990). Role of conidial matrix of Colletotrichum orbicirlure in

pathogenesis of Xanthium spinosum. Myrol. Res. 94, 890-896.

Melching, J. S.. Bromfield, K. R.. and Kingsolver. C. H. (19831. The threat of exotic plant

pathogens to agriculture in the United States. Plant Dis. 66, 1205-1209.

Miller, R. V.. Ford, E. J . , Zidack, N. J., and Sands, D. C. (1989). A pyrimidine auxotroph of

Sclerofiniusclerotionrm for use in biological weed control. J. Cen. Microbiol. 135, 2085-2091.

Moms, M . J . , and Cilliers, C. 1. (1992). New fungus against waterhyacinth. Plant Protection News

No. 30. Bull. Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa.

Mortenson. K. (1988). The potential of an endemic fungus, Collrtotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp.

malvue. for biological control of round-leaved mallow (Muha pusilla) and velvetleaf (Abutilon

theophrusti). Weed Sci. 36, 473-478.

Mortenson, K. ( 1991 ). Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of Luvaferu sp. Cumd i m Plunt Dis. Survey 71, 155- 159.

Paul, N. D.. and Ayres, P.G . (1986a). Seasonal eflects on rust disease (Pucriniu lagenophorae) of

Senecio vulgaris. Symbiosis 2 . 165- 173.

Paul, N . D., and Ayres. P. G. (1986b). The impact of a pathogen (fircciniu lagenophorue) on

populations of groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) overwintering in the field. J. Ecol. 74, 1069-1084.

Paul, N . D., and Ayres, P. G . (1987a). Effects of rust infection of Senecio wlguris on competition

with lettuce. WeedRes. 27, 431-441.

Paul, N . D.. and Ayres. P. G. (1987b). Survival. growth and reproduction of groundsel (Senerio

vulgaris) infected by rust (Pucciniu lagenophorue) in the field during summer. J. Ecol. 75, 6171.

Phatak, S. C., Sumner, D. R.. Wells, H. D., Bell. D. K., and Glaze, N. C. (1983). Biological

control of yellow nutsedge with the indigenous rust fungus, Pucciniu cunoliculufu.Science 219.

1446- 1447,

Politis, D. J . , Watson. A. K., and Bruckart, W. L. (1984). Susceptibility of musk thistle and related

composites to Pucciniu carduorum. Phvtoporholop 74, 687-69 I .

Riddle, G. E . , Burpee, L. L.. and Boland, G. 1. (1991). Virulence of Sclerotiniu srlemtiorum and S .

minor on dandelion (Turmacum oj7cinule). Weed Sci. 39, 109- I 18.

Ridings, W. H. (1986). Biological control of stranglervine in citrus-A researcher’s view. Wwd S r i .

34(S~ppl.I ) , 31-32.

Ridings, W. H., Mitchell, D. J., Schoulties. C. L.. and El-Gholl, N . E. (1976). Biological control of

milkweed vine in Florida citrus groves with a pathotype of Phytophrhoru citrophthoro. Proc. IV

Int. Symp. Biol. Control Weeds, pp. 224-240. Gainesville, FL.

Ridings, W. H., Schoulties, C. L., El-Gholl, N. E., and Mitchell, D. J. (1977). The milkweed vine

pathotype of Phvtophthoru citrophthora as a biological control agent of Morreniu odorutu. Proc.

Int. Sot. Citriculture 3, 877-881.



Rodgers, P. B. (1993). Potential of biopesticides in agriculture. Pest. Sci. 39, 117-129.

Rosen, H. R. (1924). A bacterial disease of foxtail (Chaerochloa lutescens). Arkansas Agricultural

Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 193, Fayetteville. AR.

Scheepens, P. C. ( 1987). Joint action of Cochliobolus lunatus and atrazine on Echinochloa crus-galli

(L.) Beauv. Weed Res. 27. 43-47.

Sharon, A , , Amsellem, Z., and Gressel, J. (1992). Glyphosate suppression of an elicited defence

response. Planr Physiot. 98, 654-659.

Shearer, J. F. (1994). Field test of first commercial formulation of Mycofeptudiscus terrestris (Gerd.)

Ostazeski as a biocontrol for Eurasian Watermilfoil. Miscellaneous Paper ( U S . Army Engineers

Waterway Experiment Station, Vickburg, MS)A-94-4. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Washington, DC.

Smith, C. S . , Slade, S. J., Andrews, J. H., and Harris, R. F. (1989). Pathogenicity of the fungus,

Colletotrichum gloeospuriuides (Pew.) Sacc., to eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicazum

L). Aquatic Botany 33, I - 12.

Smith, R. J . , Jr., Daniel, J. T., Fox, W. T., and Templeton, G . E. (1973). Distribution in Arkansas of

a fungus disease used for bio-control of northern jointvetch in rice. Plant Dis. Reptr. 57, 695697.

Supkoff, D. M.,Joley, D. B., and Marois, J. J. (1988). Effect of introduced biological control

organisms on the density of Chondtilla juncea in California. 1. Appl. Ecol. 25, 1089-1095.

Suzuki, H. (1991). Biological control of a paddy weed, water chestnut, with a fungal pathogen. In

“Proceedings, International Seminar on Biological Control of Plant Diseases and Virus Vectors”

(H. Komada, K . Kiritani, and J. Bay-Petersen, Eds.), pp. 78-86. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center (ASPAC), Taipei, Republic of China on Taiwan.

TeBeest, D. 0. (1982). Survival of Collerotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. ueschynomene in rice

irrigation water and soil. Plant Dis.66, 469-472.

TeBeest, D. 0. (1988). Additions to the host range of Colterorrichurn gloeosporioides f.sp. aeschynornene. Plant Dis. 72, 16-18.

TeBeest, D. 0. (1990). Ecology and epidemiology of fungal plant pathogens studied as biological

control agents of weeds. I n “Microbial Control of Weeds” (D. 0. TeBeest, Ed.), pp. 97-1 14.

Chapman and Hall, New York.

TeBeest, D. 0. (1991). “Microbial Control of Weeds.” Chapman and Hall, New York.

and Brumley, J. M. (1978). Colletotrichurn gloeosporioides f.sp. aeschynomene

TeBeest, D. 0..

borne within the seed of Aeschynomene virginica. Plant Dis. Reptr. 62, 675-678.

TeBeest, D. 0..

Templeton, G.E., and Smith, R. I., Jr. (1978a). Temperature and moisture requirements for development of anthracnose on northern jointvetch. Phvropurhology 68, 389-393.

TeBeest, D. O., Templeton, G . E., and Smith, R. J., Jr. (1978b). Histopathology of Colketorrichum

gloeosporioides f.sp. aeschynomene on northern jointvetch. Phytopathology 68, 127 1- 1275.

Templeton, C . E., Smith, R. I., Jr., TeBeest, D. O., Beasley, J. N. and Klerk, R. A. (1981). Field

evaluation of dried fungus spores for biocontrol of curly indigo in rice and soybeans. Arkansas

Furm Res. 30(6), 8.

Templeton, G . E., TeBeest, D. 0..

and Smith, R. J., Jr. (1979). Biological weed control with

mycoherbicides. Ann. Rev. Phyroparhol. 17, 301-3 10.

Tisdell, C. (1987). Economic evaluation of biological weed control. Plant Prot. Q.2(1), 10-1 I .

Trujillo, E. E. (1976). Biological control of hamakua pamakani with pathogens. Proc. Am. Phytopathol. Soc. 3 , 298.

Trujillo, E. E. (1985). Biological control of hamakua pamakani with Cercosporella sp. in Hawaii. In

“Proceedings, V1 International Symposium on the Biological Control of Weeds” (E. S. Delfosse, Ed.),pp. 661-671. Vancouver, Canada.

Trujillo, E. E. ( 1986). Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a possible biological control agent for

Clidemia hirtu in Hawaiian forests. Pkunt Dis. 70, 974-976.



Trujillo, E. E. (1992). Bioherbicides. In “Frontiers in Mycology” ( G . F. Leatham. Ed), pp. 196-21 I .

Chapman and Hall, New York.

Trujillo. E. E., Aragaki, M., and Shoemaker, R . A. (1988). Infection, disease development, and

axenic culture of Entylomu cornpositarum. the cause of hamakua pamakani blight in Hawaii.

Planr Dis. 72, 355-357.

Trujillo, E. E., Norman. D. J.. and Kilgore, E. M.(1994). Septoria leaf spot, a potential biological

control for banana poka vine in forests of Hawaii. Plant Dis. 78, 883-885.

Turner, S . K . . Bruckart, W. L.. and Fay, P. K . (19x3). European rust fungi pathogenic to collections

of leafy spurge from the United States. PAptoputhologv 73, 969. [Abstract]

Verma. U. and Charudattan, R . (1993). Host range of Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, a microbial

herbicide candidate for Eurasian watermilfoil, M.yririphv//umspicatutn. Biol. Conrrvl 3, 271~


Walker, H. L. (19x1). Factors affecting biological control of spurred anoda (Anoda cristata) with

Alrernuria macrosporu. Weed Sci. 29, 505-507.

Walker, H. L., and Sciunibato. G. L. (1979). Evaluation o f Alt~rnarirrmacrosporu as a potential

biocontrol agent for spurred anoda (Anodu crisrata): Host range studies. Weed Sci. 27.61 2-614.

Wapshere, A. J. (1974). A strategy for evaluating the safety oforganisms for biological weed control.

Ann. Appl. Biol. 77, 201-21 I .

Watson. A. K . , Copernan. R . J., and Renney, A . J. (1974). A first record of Sclerofinia scleroriorum

and Microsphaeropsis cmtaureae on Centaurea diffusa. Can. J . Bofany 52, 2639-2640.

Weidemann, G . J. ( 1988). Effects of nutritional amendments on conidial production of Fusarium

solmi f.sp. cucurbitue on sodium alginate granules and on control of Texas gourd. Plant Dis.

72. 757-759.

Weideniann, G . J., TeBeest, D. 0.. and Cartwright. R . D. (1988). Host specificity of Collerorrichurn

gloeosporioides f . sp. aeschvnornetie and C . truncatiim in the Leguminosae. Phyroppurhologv 72,


Weidemann. G. J.. and Templeton, G. E. (1988). Control of Texas gourd. Cucurbitu tcxana, with

Fiisuri14msolani f.sp. cucurhirae. Weed Technol. 2. 27 1-274.

Wilson, C. L. (1969). Use of plant pathogens in weed control. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 9,411-434.

Wymore, L. A., Poirier, C., Watson, A. K.. et a / . (1988). Colletotrichum coccodes, a potential

bioherbicide for control of velvetleaf (Ahirrilon theophrasti). Plant Dis. 72, 534-538.

Wymore, L. A , , Watson, A. K., and Gotlieb. A. R. (19x7). Interaction between CoNcfotrirhum

coccodes and thidiazuron for control of velvetleaf (Abufilon theophrasfi). Weed Sci. 35, 377383.

Yang, X. B., and TeBeest, D. 0. (1992a). Rain dispersal of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides under

simulated rice field conditions. Phvlopathologv 81, I 2 19- 1222.

Yang, X. B., and TeBeest, D. 0. (1992b). Green treefrogs as vectors of Col/etotrichum

gloeosporioides. Pkutit Dis. 76, 1266- 1269.

Yang, X. B.. and TeBeest, D. 0. (1994). Distribution and grasshopper transmission of northern

jointvetch anthracnose in rice. Plant Dis. 78, 130-133.

Zhou, T., and Neal, J. C. (19%). Annual bluegrass (Poo untwa) control with Xanthomonus cumpestris pv. poannua in New York State. Weed Technol. 9, 173-177.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank





F. Iyamuremye and R. P. Dick

Department of Crop and Soil Science,

Oregon State University,

Corvallis, Oregon 9733 1

I. Introduction

A. Phosphorus Cycle in Soils

B. Early History

11. Aerobic Soils: Organic Acids and Phosphorus Sorption

A. Organic Acids in Soils

B. Complexation Reactions with Metals

C. Competition for Sorption Sites

D. Dissolution of Precipitated Phosphate and Formation of Solid

Phosphate Phases

E. F,ffects on Surface Charge

F. Phytoavailability of Phosphate

111. Aerobic Soils: Plant Residues and h m a l Manures

A. Soil pH

B. Exchangeable Aluminum and Iron

C. Phosphorus Content o f Organic Residues and Phosphorus Sorption

D. Biological Transformations of Phosphorus and Fate of Phosphorus

from Organic Amendments

E. Phosphorus Sorption

F. Organic .Amendments Enriched with Inorganic Phosphorus and

Phytoavailability of Phosphorus

rV. Waterlogged Soils

A. Organic Amendments and Eh

B. Organic Amendments and pH

C. Flooded Soils and Phosphorus Solubility

D. Effects of Organic Amendments on Phosphorus Sorption

V. Research Needs



Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development. It is

a deficient nutrient in most soils, particularly in soils with andic properties and



highly weathered soils such as Ultisols and Oxisols. Generally, P is available to

plants in very small amounts in acid soils, due to adsorption by Fe or Al oxides or

by its precipitation with soluble A1 and Fe in acid soils, whereas in alkaline soils

phosphate readily reacts with Ca to form insoluble precipitates.

Liming soils is the traditional method used to reduce P sorption to increase its

plant availability in acid soils. However, liming is an expensive input and is less

effective on high P-fixing soils (Haynes, 1982). With the current interest in

reduced use of purchased inputs and efficient use of organic residues in

agroecosystems, there has been renewed interest in the past 10 years on use of

organic amendments to increase P efficiency and availability to plants. This idea

has a long history, but recent developments in research and analytical methods

have provided significant advances in our understanding of the role of organic

amendments in affecting P sorption in soils. Besides addressing organic amendments, the scope of this chapter includes specific components (e.g., organic

acids, transformation of organic P in soils) that are important in the relationship

between organic amendments and P sorption. Because of divergent chemical and

biological processes that occur between aerobic and waterlogged soils, this review is subdivided to separately address these two types of soil environments.

More attention is devoted to aerobic soils because considerably more research

has been done on the effect of organic residues on P sorption in aerobic than

waterlogged soils.




Phosphorus reactions in the soil environment have been extensively reviewed

elsewhere (Wild, 1949; Larsen, 1967; Haynes, 1982; Berkheiser ef al., 1980;

Sanchez and Uehara, 1980; Sanyal and De Datta, 1991). Therefore, we will

provide a brief overview of P pools and transformations as a framework for

understanding the P dynamics when organic residues are added to soils.

The P cycle can be characterized as the flow of P between plants, animals,

microorganisms, and solid phases of the soil. Major P processes for soils shown

in Fig. 1 include P uptake by plants; biological mediated turnover of P through

mineralization/immobilizationreactions; and chemical fixation/dissolution reactions between liquid and solid phases.

When plant productivity is emphasized, P often has been partitioned into pools

based on their potential to provide inorganic orthophosphate for plant uptake.

These P pools are broadly envisioned as soil solution P, labile P, and nonlabile P.

The labile P is defined as a P reserve that can replenish soil solution orthophosphate in response to P uptake by plant roots. Conversely, nonlabile P has minimal

or nonexistent effects on soil solution orthophosphate on an annual basis. Both

labile and nonlabile P pools may contain inorganic and organic constituents.

Xem Thêm
Tải bản đầy đủ (.pdf) (301 trang)