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Volume 2. Handbook of Offshore Engineering

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HANDBOOK OF

OFFSHORE ENGINEERING



SUBRATA K. CHAKRABARTI

Offshore Structure Analysis, Inc.

Plainfield, Illinois, USA



Volume I



2005



ELSEVIER

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PREFACE

Due to the rapid growth of the offshore field, particularly in the exploration and development of offshore oil and gas fields in deep waters of the oceans, the science and engineering

in this area is seeing a phenomenal advancement. This advanced knowledge is not readily

available for use by the practitioners in the field in a single reference.

Tremendous strides have been made in the last decades in the advancement of offshore

exploration and production of minerals. This has given rise to developments of new

concepts and structures and material for application in the deep oceans. This has generated

an obvious need of a reference book providing the state-of-the art in offshore engineering.

This handbook is an attempt to fill this gap. It covers the important aspects of offshore

structure design, installation and operation. The book covers the basic background

material and its application in offshore engineering. Particular emphasis is placed in the

application of the theory to practical problems. It includes the practical aspects of the

offshore structures with handy design guides. simple description of the various components

of the offshore engineering and their functions.

One of the unique strengths of the book is the impressive and encompassing presentation

of current functional and operational offshore development for all those involved with

offshore structures. It is tailored as a reference book for the practicing engineers, and

should serve as a handy reference book for the design engineers and consultant involved

with offshore engineering and the design of offshore structures. This book emphasizes

the practical aspects rather than the theoretical treatments needed in the research in

the field of offshore engineering. In particular, it describes the dos and don’ts of all

aspects of offshore structures. Much hands-on experience has been incorporated in the

write up and contents of the book. Simple formulas and guidelines are provided

throughout the book. Detailed design calculations, discussion of software development,

and the background mathematics has been purposely left out. The book is not intended

to provide detailed design methods, which should be used in conjunction with the

knowledge and guidelines included in the book. This does not mean that they are not

necessary for the design of offshore structures. Typically, the advanced formulations are

handled by specialized software. The primary purpose of the book is to provide the

important practical aspects of offshore engineering without going into the nitty gritty of

the actual detailed design. Long derivations or mathematical treatments are avoided.

Where necessary, formulas are stated in simple terms for easy calculations. Illustrations

are provided in these cases. Information is provided in handy reference tables and design

charts. Examples are provided to show how the theory outlined in the book is applied in

the design of structures. Many examples are borrowed from the deep-water offshore

structures of interest today including their components, and material that completes the

system.



vi



Contents of the handbook include the following chapters:

Historical Development of Offshore Structures

Novel and Marginal Field Offshore Structures

Ocean Environment

Loads and Responses

Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structure

Fixed Offshore Platform Design

Floating Offshore Platform Design

Mooring Systems

Drilling and Production Risers

Topside Facilities Layout Development

Design and Construction of Offshore Pipelines

Design for Reliability: Human and Organisational Factors

Physical Modelling of Offshore Structures

Offshore Installation

Materials for Offshore Applications

Geophysical and Geotechnical Design

The book is a collective effort of many technical specialists. Each chapter is written by

one or more invited world-renowned experts on the basis of their long-time practical

experience in the offshore field. The sixteen chapters, contributed by internationally

recognized offshore experts provide invaluable insights on the recent advances and present

state-of-knowledge on offshore developments. Attempts were made to choose the people,

who have been in the trenches, to write these chapters. They know what it takes to get

a structure from the drawing board to the site doing its job for which it is designed. They

work everyday on these structures with the design engineers, operations engineers and

construction people and make sure that the job is done right.

Chapter 1 introduces the historical development of offshore structures in the exploration

and production of petroleum reservoirs below the seafloor. It covers both the earlier

offshore structures that have been installed in shallow and intermediate water depths as

well as those for deep-water development and proposed as ultra-deep water structures.

A short description of these structures and their applications are discussed.

Chapter 2 describes novel structures and their process of development to meet certain

requirements of an offshore field. Several examples given for these structures are operating

in offshore fields today. A few others are concepts in various stages of their developments.

The main purpose of this chapter is to lay down a logical step that one should follow in

developing a structural concept for a particular need and a set of prescribed requirements.

The ocean environment is the subject of chapter 3. It describes the environment that may

be expected in various parts of the world and their properties. Formulas in describing their

magnitudes are provided where appropriate so that the effect of these environments on the

structure may be evaluated. The magnitudes of environment in various parts of the world

are discussed. They should help the designer in choosing the appropriate metocean

conditions that should be used for the structure development.



vii



Chapter 4 provides a generic description of how to compute loads on an offshore structure and how the structure responds to these loads. Basic formulas have been stated for

easy references whenever specific needs arise throughout this handbook. Therefore, this

chapter may be consulted during the review of specific structures covered in the handbook.

References are made regarding the design guidelines of various certifying agencies.

Chapter 5 deals with a statistical design approach incorporating the random nature of

environment. Three design approaches are described that include the design wave, design

storm and long-term design. Several examples have been given to explain these approaches.

The design of fixed offshore structures is described in Chapter 6. The procedure follows a

design cycle for the fixed structure and include different types of structure design including

tubular joints and fatigue design.

Chapter 7 discusses the design of floating structures. in particular those used in offshore oil

drilling and production. Both permanent and mobile platforms have been discussed. The

design areas of floaters include weight control and stability and dynamic loads on as well as

fatigue for equipment, risers, mooring and the hull itself. The effect of large currents in the

deepwater Gulf of Mexico, high seas and strong currents in the North Atlantic, and long

period swells in West Africa are considered in the design development. Installation of the

platforms. mooring and decks in deep water present new challenges.

Floating offshore vessels have fit-for-purpose mooring systems. The mooring system

selection, and design are the subject of Chapter 8. The mooring system consists of freely

hanging lines connecting the surface platform to anchors. or piles, on the seabed,

positioned some distance from the platform.

Chapter 9 provides a description of the analysis procedures used to support the operation

of drilling and production risers in floating vessels. The offshore industry depends on these

procedures to assure the integrity of drilling and production risers. The description;

selection and design of these risers are described in the chapter.

The specific considerations that should be given in the design of a deck structure is

described in Chapter 10. The areas and equipment required for deck and the spacing

are discussed. The effect of the environment on the deck design is addressed. The control

and safety requirements, including fuel and ignition sources, firewall and fire equipment

are given.

The objective of chapter 11 is to guide the offshore pipeline engineer during the design

process. The aspects of offshore pipeline design that are discussed include a design basis,

route selection. sizing the pipe diameter, and wall thickness. on-bottom pipeline stability,

bottom roughness analysis, external corrosion protection, crossing design and construction

feasibility.

Chapter 12 is focused on people and their organizations and how to design offshore

structures to achieve desirable reliability in these aspects. The objective of this chapter is to

provide engineers design-oriented guidelines to help develop success in design of offshore

structures. Application of these guidelines are illustrated with a couple of practical examples.

The scale model testing is the subject of Chapter 13. This chapter describes the need.

the modeling background and the method of physical testing of offshore structures in a



viii



small-scale model. The physical modeling involves design and construction of scale model.

generation of environment in an appropriate facility, measuring responses of the model

subjected to the scaled environment and scaling up of the measured responses to the design

values. These aspects are discussed here.

Installation, foundation, load-out and transportation are covered in Chapter 14. Installation methods of the following substructures are covered: Jackets; Jack-ups; Compliant

towers and Gravity base structures. Different types of foundations and their unique methods

of installation are discussed. The phase of transferring the completed structure onto

the deck of a cargo vessel and its journey to the site, referred to as the load-out and

transportation operation, and their types are described.

Chapter 15 reviews the important materials for offshore application and their corrosion

issues. It discusses the key factors that affect materials selection and design. The chapter

includes performance data and specifications for materials commonly used for offshore

developments. These materials include carbon steel, corrosion resistant alloys, elastomers

and composites. In addition the chapter discusses key design issues such as fracture,

fatigue: corrosion control and welding.

Chapter 16 provides an overview of the geophysical and geotechnical techniques and

solutions available for investigating the soils and rocks that lay beneath the seabed.

A project’s successful outcome depends on securing the services of highly competent

contractors and technical advisors. What is achievable is governed by a combination of

factors, such as geology, water depth; environment and vessel capabilities. The discussions

are transcribed without recourse to complex science, mathematics or lengthy descriptions

of complicated procedures.

Because of the practical nature of the examples used in the handbook, many of which came

from past experiences in different offshore locations of the world, it was not possible to use

a consistent set of engineering units. Therefore, the English and metric units are

interchangeably used throughout the book. Dual units are included as far as practical,

especially in the beginning chapters. A conversion table is included in the handbook for

those who are more familiar with and prefer to use one or the other unit system.

This handbook should have wide applications in offshore engineering. People in the following disciplines will be benefited from this book: Offshore Structure designers and

fabricators; Offshore Field Engineers; Operators of rigs and offshore structures; Consulting

Engineers; Undergraduate & Graduate Students; Faculty Members in OceaniOffshore

Eng. & Naval Architectural Depts.; University libraries; Offshore industry personnel;

Design firm personnel.

Subrata Cliakrabarti

T e c h ical Editor



X\



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface .............................................................................................................................

Abbreviations

..........................................

Conversion Factors ...............................................................

List of Contributors ........................................................................................................



Chapter 1



.



Historical Development of Offshore Structures



...........................................



....

1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................

1.1.1 Definition of Offshore Structures ...............................................................................

1.1.2 Historical Development

............................................................................

1.1.3 Selection of Deepwater Production Concepts

.........................

I . 1.4 Offshore Disasters ......................................................................................................

..........................................

1.2 Deepwater Challenges .............

1.3 Functions of Offshore Structures ..............................................................

1.3.1 Exploratory Drilling Structures .................................................................................

I .3.2 Production Structures .

...............................................

1.3.3 Storage Structures ......................................................

1.3.4 Export Systems ................................................................................................

1.4 Offshore Structure Configurations ........................................................................................

1.4.1 Bottom-Supported Structures .....................................................................................

1.4.2 Floating Offshore Structures ..................................

1.4.3 Floating vs . Fixed Offshore Structures ...........................................................

1.5 Bottom-Supported Fixed Structures ......................................................................................

1.5.1 Minimal Platforms ....................................................................................................

1.5.2 Jacket Structures ........................

..............................

1.5.3 Gravity Base Stru

1.5.4 Jack-ups ......................................................................................................................

1.5.5 Subsea Templates

...................................................................................

1.5.6 Subsea Pipelines ..........................................................

1.6 Compliant Structures ...........................................................................

1.6.1 Articulated Platforms ...............................................................

1.6.2 Compliant Tower ........................................................................................................

1.6.3 Guyed Tower ........................

.............................................

1.7 Floating Structures ...............................................................................................................

1.7.1 Floating Platform Types .............................................................................................

1.7.2 Drilling Units

.................................................................................

1.7.3 Production Uni s

...............................

1.7.4 Drilling and Production Units ..................................................................................

1.7.5 Platform Configurations .............................................................................................



v

ix

xi



...



xiii



1



1



2

2

5

8

9

11

11

12

13

14

15

16



16

17

19

19

20

21

21

22

22

24

24

24

25

26

26

26

27

28

28



1.8 Classification Societies and Industry

Standard Groups ....................................................



Chapter 2.



Novel and Small Field Offshore Structures



34



.................................................



.......................................

2.1 Introduction ............................

................

2.2 Overview of Oil and Gas Field Developments ...............................

2.2.1 Field Development Par

2.2.2 Structure Types .....................

2.2.3 Selection of Field Deve

2.3 Technical Basis for Developing Novel Offshore Structures ..................................................

2.3.1 Overview of Historical Innovations.............

.......................................

2.3.2 Basic Technical Principles ...........................................................................

2.4 Other Considerations for Developing Novel Offshore Structures .........................

2.4.1 Financially-Driven Developments

...............................................................

2.4.2 Regulatory-Driven Developments .......................................

................

2.5 Novel Field Development Systems ........................................................................................

2.5.1 Bottom-Supported Systems .

..................

.......................................

......................................................

2.5.2 Neutrally-Buoyant Floating

2.5.3 Positively-Buoyant Floating Systems .........................................................................

2.6 Discussion of Selected Innovative Field Development Concept ...........................................

2.6.1 Overview ..............................................................................

................

2.6.2 Field Development Concept .......................................................................

2.7 Discussion of Selected Innovative Structures .................................

2.7.1 Structures Selected for In-Depth Discussion ..............................................................

2.7.2 Construction and Construction Schedule ....

.................................

................

2.7.3 Transportation and Installation ..........................................

2.7.4 In-Service Response and Utilisation ....................................

...........................

2.7.5 Post-service Utilisation ...............................................................................................

2.7.6 Capital and Operating Expenditures

...............................................................

2.7.7 Residual Value and Risk Factors ........................................

2.7.8 Summary Discussion ........................

2.8 Future Field Development Options .............

2.8.1 Technological Innovations and their Impact

.......................................

................

2.8.2 Innovations Affecting Cost Efficiencies ..............................

2.8.3 Most Likely Field Development Inn

Chapter 3.



Ocean Environment



.....................................................................................



3.1 Introduction

.............................................................................................

...

3.2 Ocean Water Properties.

....................................................................................

3.2.1 Density, Viscosity

d Temperature ........

.......................................

3.3 Wave Theory ..........................................................

3.3.1 Linear Wave Theory ............................................................

3.3.2 Second-Order Stokes Wave Theory .....................................

3.3.3 Fifth-Order Stokes Wave Theory ........................................

3.3.4 Stream Function Theory ............................................................................



39

39

40



44

44



52

53

53

53

56

60

63

63



66

66

68

69

70

71



73

75



79

79

80

80

80

83

91

93

94



xvii



3.4

3.5

3.6



3.7

3.8



3.9

3.10



3.11



3.3.5 Stretching Formulas for Waves at SWL ..................

......................

98

3.3.6 Applicability of Wave Theory

.............................................................................. 101

.............................................................................. 103

3.3.7 Wave Group ...........................

3.3.8 Series Representation of Long-Crested Wave .....................

.... 103

..................................................... 104

Breaking Waves ...........................

Internal Waves

...................................................................................................... 105

...................................................................................................... 106

3.6.1 Spectrum Model ............................

............................ 106

3.6.2 Applicability of Spectrum Model ............................................................................... 110

3.6.3 Simulation of Two-dimensional Sea ........................................................................... 113

3.6.4 Directional Spectrum .................................................................................................. 114

3.6.5 Simulation of Directional Sea .................................................................................... 116

117

Sea States ...............................................................................................................................

Wave-driven Current .......

118

3.8.1 Steady Uniform Current ............................................................................................. 118

3.8.2 Steady Shear Current ................................................................................................. 119

3.8.3 Combined Current and Waves ...................................................................................

119

Loop Current ...

Wind and Wind Spectrum ..................................................................................................... 123

3.10.1 Wind Speed ................................................................................................................ 123

.........

.............

..........

123

3.10.2 Wind Spectrum ....

Offshore Environment by Location ....................................................................................... 125



Chapter 4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5



4.6

4.7



4.8

4.9



.



Loads and Responses



...................................................................................



Introduction ...........................................................................................................................

Gravity Loads ........................................................................................................................

Hydrostatic Loads .................................................................................................................

Resistance Loads ...................................................................................................................

Current Loads on Structures

.....................................................

4.5.1 Current Drag and Lift Force .....................................................................................

4.5.2 Blockage Factor in Current ........................................................................................

Steady and Dynamic Wind Loads on Structures ..................................................................

Wave Loads on Structures .

..............................................................................

4.7.1 Morison Equation ......................................................................................................

4.7.2 Forces on Oscillating Structures .................................................................................

4.7.3 Wave Plus Current Loads ..........................................................................................

4.7.4 Design Values for Hydrodynamic Coefficients ..........................................................

4.7.5 FroudeXrylov Force on Structure ............................................................................

4.7.6 Wave Diffraction Force on Structure ..........................

4.7.7 Added Mass and Damping Coefficien

.....................................................

4.7.8 Haskind Relationship for Accuracy C

.....................................................

4.7.9 Linear Diffraction Radiation Theory Software ..........................................................

Applicability of Morison Force vs . Diffraction Force ..........................................................

Steady Wave Drift Force .......................................................................................................

4.9.1 Steady Drift Potential Force ......................................................................................

.............

4.9.2 Viscous Drift Force .......................



133

133

135

136

136

137

137

141

143

143

144

145

150

152

158

160

161

162

162

164

166

167

170



xviii



4.10 Slow-Drift Wave Forces .............................................

.............................

4.1 1 Varying Wind Load ...............................................................................................................

4.12 Impulse Loads

...............................................................

4.12.1 Wave Slamming Load ...................................

.............................

4.12.2 Breaking Wave Load ................................................................................................

4.12.3 Wave Run-U

................................

4.13 Response of Structure

................................

...........................................................

4.13.1 Structure Mo

4.13.2 Transient Response of Structure ...................

......

4.13.3 Forced Linearly Damped System .............................................................................

4.13.4 Non-linearly Damped Structure Response ...............................................................

4.13.5 Motions of Floating Structure ...

4.13.6 Interaction of Two Floating Structures .........

4.13.7 Slowly-Varying Response .........................................................................................

4.13.8 Simplified Computation of Slow-Drift Oscillation ...................................................

4.13.9 High-Frequency Respons

4.13.10 Hydrodynamic Damping

4.14 Applicability of Response Formula .......................................................................................

4.14.1 Key Responses for Offshore Structures .........



Chapter 5.



Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structures



.................................................



172

174

175

176

177

177

178

178

180

183

186



189

189



194

194



197



5.1 Application of Statistics in Offshore Engineering ....................................

5.2 Wave Statistics ....................................................................................................................... 197

5.2.1 The Gaussian Distribution ........................................................................................

201

5.2.2 The Rayleigh Distribution ......................

........................................................... 202

..... 207

5.3 Response Statistics ....................................................................................

5.4 Design Approaches ................................................................................................................ 210

5.4.1 Design Wave ............................................................................................................. 210

........................................................... 21 1

5.4.2 Short-Term Design

5.4.3 Long-Term Design

......................................................................................... 216

5.5 Combination of Multiple Sto

5.5.1 Combination of First

5.6 Probabilistic Design of Offsh

5.6.1 Introduction .............

5.6.2 Limit States and Failure Criteria .............................................................................. 227

.........................................................................................

232

5.7 Uncertainty Measures.

............

............................. 232

5.7.1 General Description ........

5.7.2 Representation

....................................................................... 235

5.7.3 Probabilistic Description of Response in Complex

Structures ..................................................................

..........

237

240

5.8 Structural Reliability Analysis ...............................................................................................

5.8.1 Elementary Case ........................................................................................................ 240

........................................................... 243

5.8.2 Generalisation of Reliability Analysis.

5.8.3 Fatigue Reliability ........................................................................

25 1

5.8.4 Design Values and Calibration of Partial Factors .................................................... 253



x1x



5.8.5 Probabilistic Calibration of Combination

Values for Loads ........................................................................................................ 257

5.9 System Reliability .....

5.9.1 General ..........

5.9.2 Analysis of Simple Systems ........................................................................................ 261

5.10

5.10.1 General

5.10.2 Calibrat

5.11



Chapter 6



.



Fixed Offshore Platform Design ..................................................................



279



6.1 Field Development and Concept Selection Activities............................................................ 279

6.1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................

279

6.1.2 Design Spiral and Field Development Timeline ......................................................... 280

6.1.3 Factors That Drive Concept Selection ............................................

6.1.4 Field Development Design Phases ............................................................................. 290

6.2 Basic and Detailed Design of a Fixed Jacket- Tower-type Offshore Platform ..................... 293

......

.........

..........

...... 293

6.2.1 Introduction

6.2.2 Selection of the Design Parameters ............................................................................ 299

6.2.3 Selection of the Member Sizes.................................................................................... 303

6.2.4 Computer Simulation and Detailed Analysis ............................................................. 333

.. 356

6.2.5 Solution of the Load Deflection Equation P, = k,,d

6.3 Special Topics ........................................................................................................................

368

6.3.1 Tubular Connections .................................................................................................. 368

6.3.2 Deep Water Jackets and Compliant Tower Platforms ............................................... 390

6.3.3 Structural Design of Jack U p Rig Platforms

(by Vissa Rammohan, Vice President, Stress Offshore Engineering Inc.) ................. 401



Chapter 7



.



Floating Offshore Platform Design



..............................................................



419



7.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................

.......... 419

7.2 Floating Platform Types ........................................................................................................ 421

7.2.1 General .................................

.............................................

7.2.2 Functions .................................................................................................................... 421

7.2.3 Motions .......................................................................................................................

423

7.2.4 Concept Selection .................

7.3 Design of Floaters ........................................................

7.3.1 Functional Requirements .....

7.3.2 Configuration Proportions ......................................................................................... 436

7.3.3 Weight Control ........................................................................................................... 437

7.3.4 Stability (Krish Thiagarajan, University of Western Australia, Perth .

WA . Australia) ........................................................................................................... 440

7.3.5 Coordinate Systems and Transformations ................................................................. 445

7.4 Floating Production Storage and Offloading Systems

448

7.4.1 FPSO Hull Design ...................................................................................................... 449

7.4.2 Hull Structure ............................................................................................................. 451



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